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Sabtu, 10 November 2012

Comparison of adjectives


There are three forms of comparison:
- positive
- comparative
- superlative

A - Comparison with -er/-est
clean - cleaner - (the) cleanest
We use -er/-est with the following adjectives:
1) Adjectives with one syllable
positive
comparative
superlative
clean
cleaner
cleanest
new
newer
newest
cheap
cheaper
cheapest

2) Adjectives with two syllables and the following endings:
2 - 1) Adjectives with two syllables, ending in -y
positive
comparative
superlative
dirty
dirtier
dirtiest
easy
easier
easiest
happy
happier
happiest
pretty
prettier
prettiest
2 - 2) Adjectives with two syllables, ending in -er
positive
comparative
superlative
clever
cleverer
cleverest
2 - 3) Adjectives with two syllables, ending in -le
positive
comparative
superlative
simple
simpler
simplest
2 - 4) Adjectives with two syllables, ending in -ow
positive
comparative
superlative
narrow
narrower
narrowest

3) Spelling of the adjectives using the endings -er/-est

positive
comparative
superlative
comment
large
larger
largest
leave out the silent -e
big
bigger
biggest
Double the consonant after short vowel
sad
sadder
saddest
dirty
dirtier
dirtiest
Change -y to -i (consonant before -y)
shy
shyer
shyest
Here -y is not changed to -i.
(although consonant before -y)


B - Comparison with more - most
positive
comparative
superlative
difficult
more difficult
(the) most difficult
all adjectives with more than one syllable (except some adjectives with two syllables - see
2 - 1 to 2 - 4)


C - Irregular adjectives
positive
comparative
superlative
comment
good
better
best

bad
worse
worst

much
more
most
uncountable nouns
many
more
most
countable nouns
little
less
least

little
smaller
smallest



D - Special adjectives
Some adjectives have two possible forms of comparison (-er/est and more/most).
positive
comparative
superlative
clever
cleverer / more clever
cleverest / most clever
common
commoner / more common
commonest / most common
likely
likelier / more likely
likeliest / most likely
pleasant
pleasanter / more pleasant
pleasantest / most pleasant
polite
politer / more polite
politest / most polite
quiet
quieter / more quiet
quietest / most quiet
simple
simpler / more simple
simplest / most simple
stupid
stupider / more stupid
stupidest / most stupid
subtle
subtler / more subtle
subtlest / most subtle
sure
surer / more sure
surest / most sure


E - Difference in meaning with adjectives:
positive
comparative
superlative
comment
far
farther
farthest
distance
further
furthest
distance or
time
late
later
latest

latter
x

x
last

old
older
oldest
people and things
elder
eldest
people (family)
near
nearer
nearest
distance
x
next
order

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