Daftar Blog Saya

Minggu, 04 November 2012

Kinds of Participles



There are three kinds of participles in English:
                       - present participle,
                       - past participle, and
                       - perfect participle.
You probably know the first two from certain tenses and adjective forms. Apart from that, participles are also used to shorten sentences.

  • Present Participle
The present participle is the ing-form. You surely know this form:
  • from progressive / continuous tenses (e. g. Present Progressive) – I am speaking.
  • as an adjective form – The film is interesting.
  • as a gerund – He is afraid of flying.
Not the exceptions in spelling when adding 'ing':
Exception
Example
final e dropped (but: ee is not changed)
come – coming (but: agree - agreeing)
final consonant after short, stressed vowel is doubled
sit – sitting
final consonant l after vowel is always doubled (in British English)
travel – travelling
final ie becomes y
lie – lying

- The present participle can be used to describe the following verbs:

              come, go, sit
Example: The girl sat crying on the sofa.

- The present participle can also be used after verbs of the senses if we do not want to emphasise that the action was completed. (see Infinitive or Ing-Form)
              feel, find, hear, listen to, notice, see, smell, watch
Example: Did you see him dancing?

- Furthermore, the present participle can be used to shorten or combine active clauses that have the same subject.

Example: She left the house and whistled. – She left the house whistling.


  • Past Participle
- The past participle is the participle that you find in the column of lists with irregular verbs (see the column bellow). You surely know this form:
  • from perfect tenses – I have spoken.
  • from passive voice – The letter was written.
  • as an adjective form – I was bored to death.
- For regular verbs form the past participle by adding ed, however, note the following exceptions in spelling:
Exceptions when adding ed
Example
after a final e, only add d
love – loved
final consonant after a short, stressed vowel
or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled
admit – admitted
travel – travelled
final y after a consonant becomes i
hurry – hurried

The past participle can also be used to shorten or combine passive clauses that have the same subject.
Example: The boy was given an apple. He stopped crying. – Given an apple, the boy stopped crying.


Note:

List of Irregular Verbs

Infinitive
Simple Past
Past Participle
alight
alighted, alit
alighted, alit
arise
arose
arisen
awake
awoke, awaked
awoken, awaked
be
was, were
been
bear
bore
borne, born
beat
beat
beaten, beat
become
became
become
beget
begot
begotten
begin
began
begun
bend
bent
bent
bereave
bereaved, bereft
bereaved, bereft
beseech
besought, beseeched
besought, beseeched
bet
bet, betted
bet, betted
bid
bade, bid
bidden, bid, bade
bide
bade, bided
bided
bind
bound
bound
bite
bit
bitten
bleed
bled
bled
bless
blessed, blest
blessed, blest
blow
blew
blown
break
broke
broken
breed
bred
bred
bring
brought
brought
broadcast
broadcast, broadcasted
broadcast, broadcasted
build
built
built
burn
burnt, burned
burnt, burned
burst
burst
burst
bust
bust, busted
bust, busted
buy
bought
bought
can
could
(kein Participle)
cast
cast
cast
catch
caught
caught
choose
chose
chosen
cleave
cleft, cleaved, clove
cleft, cleaved, cloven
cling
clung
clung
clothe
clothed, clad
clothed, clad
come
came
come
cost
cost
cost
creep
crept
crept
crow
crowed
crew, crowed
cut
cut
cut
deal
dealt
dealt
dig
dug
dug
do
did
done
draw
drew
drawn
dream
dreamt, dreamed
dreamt, dreamed
drink
drank
drunk
drive
drove
driven
dwell
dwelt, dwelled
dwelt, dwelled
eat
ate
eaten
fall
fell
fallen
feed
fed
fed
feel
felt
felt
fight
fought
fought
find
found
found
flee
fled
fled
fling
flung
flung
fly
flew
flown
forbid
forbad, forbade
forbid, forbidden
forecast
forecast, forecasted
forecast, forecasted
forget
forgot
forgotten
forsake
forsook
forsaken
freeze
froze
frozen
geld
gelded, gelt
gelded, gelt
get
got
got, gotten
gild
gilded, gilt
gilded, gilt
give
gave
given
gnaw
gnawed
gnawed, gnawn
go
went
gone
grind
ground
ground
grip
gripped, gript
gripped, gript
grow
grew
grown
hang
hung
hung
have
had
had
hear
heard
heard
heave
heaved, hove
heaved, hove
hew
hewed
hewed, hewn
hide
hid
hidden, hid
hit
hit
hit
hold
held
held
hurt
hurt
hurt
keep
kept
kept
kneel
knelt, kneeled
knelt, kneeled
knit
knitted, knit
knitted, knit
know
knew
known
lay
laid
laid
lead
led
led
lean
leant, leaned
leant, leaned
leap
leapt, leaped
leapt, leaped
learn
learnt, learned
learnt, learned
leave
left
left
lend
lent
lent
let
let
let
lie
lay
lain
light
lit, lighted
lit, lighted
lose
lost
lost
make
made
made
may
might
(kein Participle)
mean
meant
meant
meet
met
met
melt
melted
molten, melted
mow
mowed
mown, mowed
pay
paid
paid
pen
pent, penned
pent, penned
plead
pled, pleaded
pled, pleaded
prove
proved
proven, proved
put
put
put
quit
quit, quitted
quit, quitted
read
read
read
rid
rid, ridded
rid, ridded
ride
rode
ridden
ring
rang
rung
rise
rose
risen
run
ran
run
saw
sawed
sawn, sawed
say
said
said
see
saw
seen
seek
sought
sought
sell
sold
sold
send
sent
sent
set
set
set
sew
sewed
sewn, sewed
shake
shook
shaken
shall
should
(kein Participle)
shear
sheared
shorn, sheared
shed
shed
shed
shine
shone
shone
shit
shit, shitted, shat
shit, shitted, shat
shoe
shod, shoed
shod, shoed
shoot
shot
shot
show
showed
shown, showed
shred
shred, shredded
shred, shredded
shrink
shrank, shrunk
shrunk
shut
shut
shut
sing
sang
sung
sink
sank
sunk
sit
sat
sat
slay
slew
slain
sleep
slept
slept
slide
slid
slid
sling
slung
slung
slink
slunk
slunk
slit
slit
slit
smell
smelt, smelled
smelt, smelled
smite
smote
smitten
sow
sowed
sown, sowed
speak
spoke
spoken
speed
sped, speeded
sped, speeded
spell
spelt, spelled
spelt, spelled
spend
spent
spent
spill
spilt, spilled
spilt, spilled
spin
spun
spun
spit
spat
spat
split
split
split
spoil
spoilt, spoiled
spoilt, spoiled
spread
spread
spread
spring
sprang, sprung
sprung
stand
stood
stood
steal
stole
stolen
stick
stuck
stuck
sting
stung
stung
stink
stank, stunk
stunk
stride
strode
stridden
strike
struck
struck
string
strung
strung
strive
strove
striven
swear
swore
sworn
sweat
sweat, sweated
sweat, sweated
sweep
swept
swept
swell
swelled
swollen, swelled
swim
swam
swum
swing
swung
swung
take
took
taken
teach
taught
taught
tear
tore
torn
telecast
telecast, telecasted
telecast, telecasted
tell
told
told
think
thought
thought
throw
threw
thrown
thrust
thrust
thrust
tread
trod
trodden
understand
understood
understood
wake
woke, waked
woken, waked
wear
wore
worn
weave
wove
woven
wed
wed, wedded
wed, wedded
weep
wept
wept
wet
wet, wetted
wet, wetted
win
won
won
wind
wound
wound
wring
wrung
wrung
write
wrote
written

 
  • Perfect Participle
The perfect participle can be used to shorten or combine clauses that have the same subject if …
  • … one action (the one where the perfect participle is used) is completed before the next action starts.
Example: She bought a bike and cycled home. – Having bought a bike, she cycled home.
  • … one action has been going on for a period of time when another action starts.
Example: He had been living there for such a long time that he didn't want to move to another town. – Having lived there for such a long time, he didn't want to move to another town.

- The perfect participle can be used for active and passive voice.
  • active voice: having + past participle (Having cooked, he set the table.)
  • passive voice: having been + past participle (Having been cooked, the food looked delicious.)

---Use of Participle Clauses

- If a clause is shortened using a participle construction, the clause is called participle clause.
Example: Watching TV, she forgot everything around her.
In English, participle clauses are mainly used in writing in order to put a lot of information into one sentence.
When shortening or combining clauses with a participle construction, keep the following rules in mind:
  • Both clauses should have the same subject.
  • The less important part becomes the participle clause. Important information should always be in the main clause.
  • Make sure, you use the correct participle form (see above).
  • The conjunctions as, because, since and relative pronouns who, which are left out.
  • The conjunctions before, when are used in the participle clause.
  • The conjunctions after, while can be used or left out.

---Participle Clauses with different Subjects

- Sometimes participle clauses can be used even if the clauses to be combined do not have the same subject. This is the case for example if the main clause contains one of the following verbs + object:
feel, find, hear, listen to, notice, see, smell, watch
Example: I heard him playing the guitar.

- Here, the participle clause must directly follow the object it is relating to. (Note: Some of the verbs mentioned here can also be used with the infinitive. For further information see Infinitive or Ing-Form)

- A participle construction is also possible, if both subjects are mentioned (often the word 'with' is put before the subject in the participle clause). This is very formal, however, and not often used.
Example: Mrs Jones went to New York. Mr Smith took up her position.
(With) Mrs Jones going to New York, Mr Smith took up her position.

---Incorrect Participle Clauses


- Apart from the exceptions mentioned above, participle clause and main clause should have the same subject. Otherwise the sentences might sound rather strange.
Example: I was driving on the motorway, when the baby started to cry.
→ Falscher Partizipialsatz: Driving on the motorway, the baby started to cry.
In this example you get the feeling that the baby has driven the car. So these participle clauses are considered wrong in standard English. In colloquial English, these 'incorrect participle clauses' are usually okay, and you can even find an example in Shakespeare's Hamlet:
Now, Hamlet, hear. ’Tis given out that, sleeping in my orchard, a serpent stung me.
As the text goes, it is said that Hamlet's father was bitten by a snake. Strictly speaking, however, the snake was asleep when it bit Hamlet's father.

Tidak ada komentar:

Poskan Komentar